Pope Julius II was born Giuliano della Rovere, in December 1443. He ran several times for the Papacy before he won it in 1503, mostly by making promises to and bribing cardinals. After he ascended the Papacy, he became something of a soldier-Pope. He started by challenging Venice, which had been infringing on Papal territories for some time by Julius’s election, but generally wanted to free Italy from foreign rule, especially that of France. This specific targeting of France lead to a schismatic council of cardinals who wanted to break from Julius’s Church, though this was eventually unsuccessful.